Regno dei Visigoti

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È un regno barbarico formatosi in seguito alle migrazioni dei popoli germanici all'interno dei confini dell'Impero Romano durante il IV e V secolo. Una prima fase li vide migrare dalle sponde del mar Baltico fino a quelle del mare del Nord. Da qui si spostarono verso sud sotto la pressione dei nomadi delle steppe, giungendo in contatto diretto con l'Impero nel IV secolo. Varcata la frontiera con il Danubio arrivarono a sconfiggere e uccidere l'Imperatore Valente sul campo di Adrianopoli nel 378.
Ottenuto il permesso di stanziarsi in Pannonia, come foederati, intrapresero una seconda migrazione fino all'Aquitania, nella Gallia sud occidentale. In questa fase si resero protagonisti del sacco di Roma del 410, primo saccheggio della Città Eterna da ottocento anni. Qui fondarono il loro primo regno stabile, con sede a Tolosa, da dove partirono alla conquista di tutta la penisola iberica.
L'ultima fase della migrazione iniziò nel 507, dopo la battaglia di Voullé, quando il Re Alarico II fu sconfitto dai franchi di Clodoveo e costretto ad abbandonare tutti i possedimenti visigoti in Gallia, tranne un sottile fascia di terra lungo la costa mediterranea. Da questo momento il regno visigoto trasferì la sua capitale a Toledo e si consolidò come regno fondamentalmente iberico.
Dopo quasi due secoli di vita, il Regno dei Visigoti venne distrutto nel 711 dagli arabi, che guidati da Tariq ibn Ziyad e Musa ibn Nusayr, invasero la penisola iberica dal nord Africa e sconfissero il Re Roderico nella battaglia di Guadalete. Alcuni nobili continuarono la resistenza per qualche anno, senza successo, mentre la maggior parte della classe dirigente del regno accettò sottomettersi ai nuovi padroni pur di mantenere i propri privilegi. Con questo episodio il Regno dei Visigoti cessò ufficialmente di esistere e sparì di fatto dalla storia.